Sunday, September 5, 2010


AR Notes

Silén, C., Wirell, S., Kvist, J., Nylander, E., & Smedby, Ö. (2008). Advanced 3D visualization in student-centred medical education. Medical Teacher, 30(5), 115-124. doi:10.1080/01421590801932228.

Study used CT and MR images to create 3D visualizations and used them to teach anatomy. “The virtual dissections gave a clearer picture than
ordinary dissections and the possibility to turn structures around was instructive.”
3D images are relatively easy and inexpensive to produce compared to dissection.  These help students gain spatial awareness of where things are located in a real body.  When surveyed students responded that the images helped them to understand better when presented in conjunction with other teaching practices such as lectures and books.  Students also preferred to have an instructor available to help interpret images.

Winkelmann, A. (2007). Anatomical dissection as a teaching method in medical school: a review of the evidence. Medical Education, 41(1), 15-22. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2929.2006.02625.x.

This article reviews studies of different methods of teaching anatomy.  Methods include cadaver dissection, prosected material and computerized models.  While dissection seems to offer an advantage over prosection, computer aided methods were also successful.  The author sees too many interfering variables to state with certainty which method is best and suggests, “I see 3 basic options for future research strategies: the first would follow the strategy of most of the studies reviewed here in comparing 2 courses, such as a course based on dissection and or prosection of human cadavers and a course based on modern, computerised teaching material without any cadaver contact.”

Older, J. (2004). Anatomy: A must for teaching the next generation. Surgeon (Edinburgh University Press), 2(2), 79-90. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.

The author asserts that traditional methods like dissection are being replaced with computer programs and plastic models and that medical institutions have not gathered research on whether these new teaching systems are effective.  Older believes that cadavers are the best way to teach anatomical variation and that computer models are too simplistic.

Babaian, C. (2009). Back to the Drawing Board Reconstructing DaVinci's Vitruvian Man To Teach Anatomy. American Biology Teacher, 71(4), 205-208. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.

Babaian emphasizes the simplistic use of the blackboard and chalk in teaching anatomy concepts.  Using drawing and tapping in the creative side of individuals leads to better understanding.  Allows teachers to use creativity in delivery of information.

Lewis, M. (2003). Computer-assisted learning for teaching anatomy and physiology in subjects allied to medicine. Medical Teacher, 25(2), 204-206. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.

Authors could not determine if CAL communicated the information better but did feel that in captured students curiosity and attention leading to better learning.  Thought to engage different learning styles and offer an important supplement to traditional methods.

Rizzolo, L., Stewart, W., O'Brien, M., Haims, A., Rando, W., Abrahams, J., et al. (2006). Design principles for developing an efficient clinical anatomy course. Medical Teacher, 28(2), 142-151. doi:10.1080/01421590500343065.

Anatomy computer programs can offer students specific challenges and provide immediate feedback which offers students valuable practice.  Students showed a preference for web-based self assessment over its use for teaching content.  Students felt they learned best with a combination of approaches including computer-based programs.  Instead of memorizing structures, students learned best by using problem-solving approaches.

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